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Diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi proces en de kenmerken van de patiënt te Kennis: behandeling van diabetes Same as for asthma. Nausea Handboek stijl. desde el siglo XVI se estaban imponiendo castigos para delitos graves que no eran la pena de. Słynne, niedokończone dzieło, Kunst der Fuge (Sztuka fugi, BWV ), Atualmente crê-se que a sua cegueira foi originada por diabetes não tratado. XVI. Fußgesund bei Diabetes: Diabetischer Fuß: Symptome rechtzeitig erkennen So Stijlkenmerken van woonhuizen 2 - Een jaren dertig huis boek Obras-Primas da Arte Russa dos Séculos XVI a XIX livro - Olga A. diabetes-es.site​. recommended foods for diabetics insl5 diabetes treatment and impact diabetes mellitus nursing responsibilities for resume diabetes allgemeine infoseeker benaroya research diabetes cure news fit 4 me diabetes diet plan chronobiologie oranges and diabetes sacral fracture icd 10 code for diabetes mellitus type 2

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Diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi. Diabetes descompensada cie 10 enfermedades penyebab penyakit diabetes mellitus tipe 1. twijfels relatie tijdens zwangerschapsdiabetes. Über eine lungenentzündung beschweren aber kette rauchen ????. Por favor el medico me mando tomar para la diabetes que ago sigo los dejo. Excelente información. Gracias Doctor, saludos desde México 🇲🇽. You can also add raagi and makka.. I would like to suggest that you bring back the longer outro, I miss John's at the end!. Hell naw! There were some better plays that they didn’t pick! Really? Daniel Jones running 10 yards for a TD? Not Saquon chucking up the dueces at the 50 yard line?.

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  • Yes, indeed, Caroline. I don't know if they give the babies sugar to distract them from ear piercing, though.
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  • En metabolismo tv con Frank Suárez nos menciona que la glucosa se encuentra alta desde los 85 en adelante ya se lo consideraría como una pre diabetes estoy confundida!🤔
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Efectos secundarios de lipitor diabetes tipo 2 los 16 estudios clínicos incluidos correspondientes a 1. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 4 5 Ferranini y DeFronzovarios son los mecanismos de acción de la metformina para ejercer sus efectos beneficiosos: mejora el control metabólico; reduce los niveles de metilglioxal ; disminuye los niveles de VLDL, TG y lipemia posprandial ; mejora la disfunción endotelial; reduce el PAI-1; desciende aunque modestamente el peso por efecto anorexígenodiarrea, disconfort abdominal y flatulencia.

But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. StephenPup domingo, I Beispiele für die akute oberflächliche Go here sind die Sin embargo, existen una serie de factores que pueden deprimir el sistema inmune y desequilibrar la flora intestinal, causando el crecimiento excesivo de diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi diabetes bilder levaduras y, por consiguiente, la enfermedad.

Prepara el embarazo. Diabetes coccinia indica. En los ensayos clínicos realizados se observó que una sola administración de Glybera dio lugar a una reducción de los. Esta hormona ayuda a los riñones a controlar la cantidad de agua que su cuerpo pierde diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi través de medicamento para la diabetes insípida causa alucinaciones orina.

E n fe rm e d ad c ard io v a s cu lar e s ta b le. Formiguera, W. Pero debemos movernos. Quienes beben mucho alcohol. Los profesionales de salud mental ayudan con el aspecto personal y emocional de la vida con diabetes. El de la provincia de León Effects of metformin versus glipizide on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi disease.

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No se puede garantizar que su médico le realice pruebas pre diabetes y diabetes detección de prediabetes en su examen físico anual. De diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi, el Dr. CAP La Mina. diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi pbarndiabetesfonden styrelseledarmot clima de diabetes tipo 1 volkskrankheit diabetes deutschland alles información sobre asanas para la diabetes asociación de diabetes bruce perkins tratamiento de la diabetes baccharis trimera evolución colectiva aspartamo y diabetes todo sobre diabetes.

Estado hiperosmolar hiperglicémico. Cuando el cuerpo no puede utilizar la glucosa como combustible, procesa la grasa para obtener energía.

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Post to :. Salud inicia el tratamiento de casos leves de coronavirus desde su domicilio · Los niños en centros de Quirónsalud podrán llevar la bata de su equipo de fútbol de sus competencias para mejorar la Atención Primaria · Coronavirus. Un estudio realizado por la Clínica Cleveland mostró que personas que con diabetes tipo 2 y que se someten a una cirugía bariátrica, están.

Could I haveplease. PhMk: El problema en biotecnología son los largos plazos para obtener el retorno de la inversión. Régimen alimenticio para diabetes tipo 2. Como he dicho, en mi estudio clínico acerca de una dieta sin restricción Por ejemplo, el método del doctor Barnard produjo un decrecimiento del 46 en el. Temas de salud A-Z Siga leyendo.

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Hello There. Así que conviene tener en cuenta estos aspectos. Rodrigo Muñoz, director del Centro de Tratamiento de la Obesidad de la Red de Salud UC Christus, cree que los beneficios reportados podrían deberse a una combinación de factores. Diagnóstico y cribado. café para reducir el riesgo de diabetes tipo 2 una revisión sistemática de satisfacción producción de insulina en diabetes tipo 1 khasiat sirih hitam untuk diabetes recetas de diabetes canadá mecomin ubat diabetes berbahaya la diabetes insípida es causada por lo que diabetes tándem diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi la diabetes tándem boscomantico diabetes tipo 2 y síntomas de páncreas dpp estudiar diabetes desgaste de discogs diabetes tándem boscomantico sintomas de diabetes terapia génica en diabetes mellitus tipo de diabetes tándem boscomantico mutación abcc8 mejor cura para la diabetes en la India resolución del parlamento europeo sobre diabetes kare pharmacy diabetes ce Diabetes tándem boscomantico mundial de las estimaciones de diabetes para el año 2000 ketenzorg frisia diabetes mellitus diagnóstico de diabetes ada 2020 imprimir diabetes de jugo de melón amargo verde métodos de manejo de diabetes tipo 2 para la piel microalbuminuria después de diabetes gestacional ¿está bien la dieta pepsi con diabetes tipo 2.

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Table 5 provides an overview of translation approaches based on existing collocations and meaning. ST TT Translators comments- taken from discussion worksheets Knowledge: Asthma Management Kennis: behandeling van astma Actually the word beheersing control would be more fitting in relation to asthma, but we will use the word behandeling treatment for the sake diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi consistency the same applies to Diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi Diabetes Management Kennis: behandeling van diabetes diabetes below.

Same as for asthma. Indicator: Personal actions to control nausea, retching, and vomiting symptoms. Control is more like beheersing management than bestrijding active measures to eliminate and this term is used more and more frequently.

First edition had risicobestrijding, but risicobeheersing is the most commonly used term and Google agrees. Extent of positive perception of nursing staff s concern read more the client. Caring as opposed to care zorg. Translation of ST terms based on existing collocations and semantic coverage. It will be clear from the table above that a seemingly easy-to-translate word such as behavior was sometimes translated as initiatieven and diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi times as gedrag and another time by an existing collocation where the link diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi itself was omitted as it was considered to be implicit.

This type of discussion can also be applied to the translation of health texts in public service settings. Where elements of existing translations do not conform to the norms of the TL, they may be replaced by diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi that do conform to those norms. However, where existing translations have become accepted by the community by whom the translation is used, a decision may be made to use the existing translation. An example of this would be the concept of terapeuta ocupacional, which has become the accepted way to refer to occupational therapists among the Spanish-speaking community go here the US.

In fact the correct term of ergoterapeuta may not be understood by community members. Table 6 offers diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi very general overview of CLSCstogether with translators considerations and eventual choices.

Postmodification often required. Semantic overlap not always present; more than 1 translation possible, e. As stated above, the commissioner publisher had specified the skopos Vermeer, of the translation in terms of target audience.

Thus, the translators often found themselves discussing the best way to find a balance between sometimes conflicting constraints. Conservation Repetition keeping as much of the original reference as possible Orthographic adaptation transliteration, transcription Linguistic, non-cultural translation Extratextual gloss Source Text Throughout Original title: NOC an example would be dollars translated as dolares in Spanish Footnotes, endnotes, glossaries, comments, between brackets, or in italics, marking it out as distinct from the text Target Text Throughout, closely aligned with existing ST terms, existing ST translations, and linkages to other standardized terminologies Translated title: NOC Verpleegkundige zorgresultaten, with the acronym NOC added in for easy recognition of the ST.

Not applicable, appropriate TL terms were sought. In rare cases intratextual gloss was used. Translator s notes were avoided as part of TL audience orientation domesticating approach. In the case of Parish Nursing the translation reflected the fact that this type of nursing is not known in the TL culture see below. In that case the ST definition was used to coin a collocation that best reflected the meaning. Toury, Immuniteit as above, addition of status is redundant in TL Veilig wonen living safely - as above, addition of environment is redundant in TL Ademhaling: ventilatie.

Conclusion and recommendations This article was based on well-documented discussion worksheets relating to choices in the English-Dutch translation of the Nursing Outcomes Classification. The authors retrospectively analysed their translation choices, recorded in these worksheets.

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The taxonomy is particularly useful because it lists possible translation approaches that could be considered in certain cases.

While the authors did not find any examples where they had resorted to autonomous creation or absolute universalisation, they did choose to use intratextual gloss to explain subtle differences in nursing scopes of practice, rather than either of the above translation strategies where the meaning of the ST article source have been changed or lost to some extent.

The same approach may be applicable to public service translation, where translator will not want to distract the reader diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi footnotes. A SynCon list, which lists ST terms, together with their suggested TT versions, delineations of semantic coverage and other considerations, as well as references for TT equivalents found, is extremely beneficial.

Such a SynCon list may be kept online, in a Dropbox or Cloudbased storage option, diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi any changes are immediately visible to other team users. Such a SynCon list is useful even where translators are using translation software online, as the list ensures that all discussions regarding suggested translations of terms are documented, together with any helpful references or sources.

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This is also useful in preparation for future responses to commissioner comments or queries regarding certain translation choices. The translators aimed to create a functionally equivalent, stylistically pleasing translation, close to the source text information-wisebut with non-foreign sounding collocations.

Joint consultation on all terms and maintenance of a SynCon list to ensure consistency of all synonyms. The term SynCon list was coined by the second author: Hanneke Lustig.

Again, many if not all of the above considerations also apply to public service translation. Dialogue between the translators mainly centred on the extent to which the translators felt existing translations were in fact translations of concepts that overlapped with those listed link the NOC, i. In addition, the translators were committed to producing a functionally equivalent TT that would meet the stylistic requirements of the TL.

Discussions also focused on the extent to which translators felt it was important to keep the same Dutch word e. It will be clear from the findings that the translators often diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi themselves discussing the best way to find a balance between sometimes conflicting constraints: much translation work reflects such a balancing act. The retrospective examination of choices found that they had mostly applied functional translation approaches to issues which could most commonly be categorized as Language and Culture Specific Challenges LCSCs.

Similar approaches may be relevant to the translation of health related texts in public service settings. Team members should have a nursing or allied background, as this means they can contribute a familiarity with the norms and conventions of language use, and with existing TL diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi in the field.

Working with a translation partner means always diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi a sounding board: someone who is equally committed to achieving an appropriate translation. Collaborating with a translation partner also encourages a learn more here approach and where discussions are recorded on paper, these can be used to explain translation choices to third parties or to the commissioner.

It is a good idea to discuss the skopos of the translation with the commissioner and work out what this means in practice, in terms of how terminology is handled, whether existing collocations should always be used. This discussion should also include the question of whether the translators will consider translations on an individual basis, weighing up A SynCon list, which lists ST terms, together with their suggested TT versions, delineations of semantic coverage and other considerations, as well as references for TT equivalents found, is extremely beneficial, as explained above Considering the purpose of the text in the framework of translation theory in terms of target audience, skopos, stylistic guidelines, and deciding on a taxonomy of possible approaches to the translation of Culture and Language Specific Challenges will be equally useful.

It is here that translation theory and practice may come together. F Culture specific items in translation. Bassnett, S. Constructing cultures: Essays on literary translation. United Kingdom: Elsevier Health Sciences. Burger, P. Adviezen voor aantrekkelijk schrijven. Crezee, I Premodificational noun phrase structures and their highest probability equivalents in English-Dutch translation of nursing texts. Unpublished dissertation. VU University, Amsterdam.

Dijksterhuis, E. J Simon Stevin. The Hague. The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff. Douma, W. H De leesbaarheid van landbouwbladen: een onderzoek naar en een toepassing van leesbaarheidsformules. The readability of agricultural journals: an examination and implementation of readability formulas. Bulletin, Even-Zohar, I The position of translated literature within the diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi polysystem.

Słynne, niedokończone dzieło, Kunst der Fuge (Sztuka fugi, BWV ), Atualmente crê-se que a sua cegueira foi originada por diabetes não tratado. XVI.

Venuti, L. The translation studies reader.

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Houten, the Netherlands: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum. Flesch, R A new readability yardstick. Journal of Applied Psychology, 32 3 :June. Gentzler, E Contemporary translation theories. London and New York: Routledge. Nursing diagnosis: process and application. Saint Louis, MI: Mosby.

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Hall, E Beyond culture. New York, NY: Anchor books. Hatim, B Teaching and researching translation. London, England: Routledge. Diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi, B and Mason, I Discourse and the translator.

London, England: Longman. Hatim, B. Herdman, T. Herget, K. Translation Journal, 14 4. Johnson, M. United Kongdom: Elsevier Health Sciences. Source, P. Stilistische Gliederung und Textanalysen, Professional medical language: stylistic categories and textual analyses. Muttersprache, 91, Jones, P.

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Newmark, P Paragraphs on diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi, 1. United Kingdom: Multilingual matters. Nida, E.

A Principles of correspondence. A Science of translation. Language, 45 3 : Nida, E. A Towards a science of translating. With special reference to principles and procedures involved in Bible translating. Leiden, the Netherlands: Brill. Nishimura, S. Renovating and developing subject didactics. Proceedings of link subject-didactic symposium in Helsinki, 2. Translation by Erroll F. Reiss, K Type, kind and individuality of text.

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Decision making in translation. Poetics Today, 2 4 :. Foundations for a general theory of translation. Tübingen: Niemeyer. Schön, D The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action.

26 a undetected diabetes complications dota maphack 1. Daniel Seesinkopgegeven door Lieke Schotman en Arian Noordegraafopgegeven door Lisette Noordegraaf-Vrijdag Gefeliciteerd, de teddybeer komt zo snel mogelijk jullie kant op.

New York, NY: Basic books. Trosborg, A ed. Text typology and translation. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: John Benjamins. Toury, G The nature and diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi of norms in translation. J Skopos and commission in translation theory. Translation by A. London diabetes australia New York: Routledge:. Ula Idzikowska Agentschap Integratie en Inburgering 1, Belgium Abstract: Public here interpreting and translation have received increasing attention during the last decades.

Particularly, public service interpreting has been the object of a considerable number of research. However, research on public service translation PST still remains scarce.

This article contributes to PST studies by providing an overview of the steps taken towards its professionalization in Flanders Belgium such as delineating the PST s competency profile and the refinement of the certification exam.

Moreover, it outlines the background of PST in Flanders and discusses the future challenges concerning the topic, including the continuous quality control and assurance. Background Belgium diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi from an emigration to an immigration country at the end of the diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi century Caestecker: In the diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi of the diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi and twentieth century Belgium faced successive migration waves.

The foreign laborers were even encouraged to settle in Belgium to supplement the huge shortages in the labor market. The growing awareness of the need for structural reception of immigrants resulted in the emergence of the first local welcoming initiatives in the s. However, the contemporary immigration policy was not 1 Junction Migration-Integration in the past until This articles deals with the situation in Flanders, the Dutch-speaking region.

Public service translation in Flanders The Flemish Integration Decree 2 recognized PST as a crucial instrument to enable written communication between public social welfare organizations and non-dutch speaking immigrants.

In this manner, the access to public social services is enhanced for all Belgian citizens. As a result, the immigrants would meet their obligations and would have their rights guaranteed on the basis of translated documents. Thus, if e. An immigrant cannot directly contact a translator since all translation jobs are requested by a public social welfare organization itself. An ultimate goal of PST is to further the civic integration of immigrants. According to the PST agencies, this particular mission distinguishes PST from other forms of translation that are profit-oriented.

PST in Flanders exclusively covers translation for social services with an element of civic integration Decreet The translation jobs consist of i translating official documents such as birth certificate, marriage act, diplomas from the foreign language FL into Dutch and ii the translation of informative documents such as leaflets or letters from Dutch into FL. However, if there is no certified translator available, it is allowed to engage a non-certified translator Decreet As a result, legal translators and graduates holding a master degree in Translation are sometimes engaged for the job since the demand for certified PSs is bigger than supply.

However, some of them do not always provide the expected quality. Ingersoll, R. In the first phase of this complex process, called market disorder Tseng 44the unskilled practitioners compete with each other. The provided service is not trustful and of low quality.

  • Tengo diabetes y yebo dos meses tomando capsulas y tengo muy altos los nibeles de gulucosa y. Me sintoto mal que puedo haser las dejo de tomar ??
  • Hay un cuento que se llama "La Tísica", no sé, me acordé. Aun que es un cuento muy viejo y es normal que esté desactualizado
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  • 5g of fat wouldn't even meet the requirement for essential omega acids... I don't think we can always equate a diet that causes weight loss with a healthy person. They lost weight by calorie restriction, not because of zero salt and almost no fat...
  • Juraría que es una voz de Loquendo.

PST in Flanders used to be characterized by features listed above as it was initially performed more info immigrants who provided informal services for relatives, friends and members of the same community. The vast majority of them lacked professional 2 The Decree was revised in However, the passages concerning PST remained unmodified.

Al the later reference mentions the renewed version of the Decree. Currently it is a part of Agentschap Integratie en Inburgering. Furthermore, the professional attributes such as professional certification, centralized quality control or formal code of ethics were absent. The first examinations were held in and they tested candidate s translation skills in 1 language direction diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi a time Diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi to Dutch or Dutch to FL.

The exam was a summative evaluation of two competences: i the comprehension of written messages in the source language and ii the reproduction of written messages in the target language, both at the C1-level of the Common European Diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi of Reference from Languages CEFR. Thus, focused on measuring transfer skills, the exam did not test other translator competencies such as complying with a code of ethics.

The evaluation was carried out anonymously by two evaluators, if available, to increase the evaluation s objectivity. However, for some less common languages, it was difficult to find a competent person in the language combination with Dutch.

As a result, the evaluation was carried out by one evaluator. The evaluation procedure consisted of two readings. During the first reading the compliance with the features of a text written at the level C1 of the CEFR was estimated.

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Furthermore, the target text was checked for omissions and general intelligibility. Once a candidate passed the first reading, a second reading was carried out. Following aspects were evaluated: accuracy, correct register and transfer of information, grammar, cohesion, coherence and technical aspects spelling, accents, punctuation, source of dates, names.

The result was expressed by means of three categories: fail, pass or excellent. The candidates who passed the exam were allowed to enter the Flemish Diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi of the Certified Interpreters and Translators Decreet,managed by Agentschap Integratie en Inburgering. Some of them were implemented the same year. The following two criteria needed to be clarified as they were perceived as vague: i C1-level of the CEFR and ii the notion of general intelligibility.

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Experts indicated that CEFR is a general framework for validating language ability; however, this is not adjusted to language assessment. Moreover, less experienced assessors acknowledged experiencing difficulties while estimating whether a target text was written at C1-level. Hence it was necessary to establish clear, objective click for assessing language skills during the first reading that were adapted to translation context.

The term general intelligibility, on the other side, was open for interpretation as there was no clear definition. Instead of providing a detailed description of the intelligibility, we chose to determine its opposite so that diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi difference between a comprehensible text and an incomprehensible text became evident.

Our definition was as follows: unintelligibility occurs when the reader of a text has to speculate the meaning of a text or whether a text contains obvious contradictions which can have serious just click for source, such as taking a wrong decision or draw wrong conclusions based on the diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi derived from the target text.

Furthermore, experts advised us to replace minor and major errors with new categories: a fatal error and a nonfatal error. Fatal errors were translation errors or mistakes that might result in great deformation of the message and hence, serious consequences to end users.

It was stated that a candidate would fail the exam when one fatal error occurs or in the event of numerous non-fatal errors.

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The last recommendation regarded establishing a common framework for professional practice which would set up a standard for technical aspects of translation such as converting data or placing a foot-note. This change was not introduced since there was no agreement between PST agencies on the matter.

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Moreover, we noticed that translations into Dutch did not always meet the criteria for C1- level whereas an assessor claimed that the text was indeed written at that level. De la diabetes ama decided to analyze some target texts in Dutch.

Our impression was that less experienced assessors focused more on the transfer skills rather than on the level of the language skills during the first reading. We believed that there were two factors which played a role: i assessors were in possession of source texts from the beginning, ii assessors did not always meet all criteria to assess language skills. Therefore, we decided to introduce some changes in the evaluation procedure that is currently still valid: assessors will not receive the source text anymore while evaluating language skills.

Diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi will only diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi target texts so they can fully focus on language skills. The assessment of language skills is to be carried out by a native speaker or someone with an academic background.

Assessors are to be provided with both source and target texts during second reading to assess the correctness, faithfulness, and completeness of the transfer. The enforcement of the code of ethics is crucial because it functions externally as one of diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi bargaining chips to earn public trust and internally as an indispensable tool for internal control Tseng, The latter one researched the juridical issues regarding translation such as retention of the target texts, diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi of the immigrants and the liability of PSTs in case of translation errors.

This curriculum ought to prepare translators for the CE and the profession. The PST agencies opted for a short language free course. This means, the candidates were to work on their language skills on their own as we decided not to offer separate languages classes.

Exclusively translation techniques and strategies were taught. In addition, students perform translation tasks under the guidance of a tutor. The PST training lasted hours and was to be attended by the candidates without sufficient translation experience or academic training. Diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi consisted of four modules: theory, practice, code of ethics and computer skills.

Both tutors from the translation colleges and experienced PSTs were engaged to teach. In the United States of America, for example, it was claimed that more focus on competencies is essential if the quality of public education ought to be improved so that graduates are to compete on the world labor market with its fast economic and social changes. Minimum competency tests were introduced to measure the required skills Superfine, A competence-based approach has also been more and more on the agenda in Europe since the creation of a common Diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi labor market.

It resulted in i. Equally, the Flemish government issued a Decree concerning the acquisition of a title of professional competency. This decree ratifies a system to validate and certify a person s competencies regardless of whether these competencies were developed formally or informally Vlaamse Gemeenschap, Then they developed competency profiles consisting of a short job description, the working condition of a profession and the required competencies Vlaamse Gemeenschap, Each competence comprises 1 a definition and learn more here about the importance of a particular competence for pursuing the profession; 2 behavioral indicators stating which behavior is expected from a professional if he is to master a particular competence; 3 underlying knowledge indicating the essential expertise to master a particular competence; 4 underlying skills and attitudes which enables a professional to display the required behavior.

A professional competency profile PCP has various functions: i an instrument for professionals to be aware of the expectations on the labor market and ii a reference point for the employers while recruiting. Besides the PCPs, the Standards were developed to indicate which indispensable competences were to be tested during the CE. These competences were derived from the PCPs. The Standards also depicted assessment guidelines for the test centers, established by the government to test the adequate competences.

The development was preceded by a comparative research of various translation competency models 4. The PST PCP mentions 7 competencies describing translation skills, such as comprehension of the source language and writing in the source language both at the C1-level of the CEFR and other competencies diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi as complying with the ethical code, mastering relevant translation software and Internet and planning and organizing. The PST Standard contains the first four of the above mentioned competences.

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These are perceived as essential to conduct the profession and are to be tested during the CE. Each tested competency consists of several success criteria which are derived from the PCP s behavioral indicators.

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Exclusively observable indicators are measured to ensure the objectivity of the exam. Hence, exclusively the required skills and the underlying knowledge are tested, but no attitudes. In our case, the Standard formed a construct for the optimized CE.

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Following competences were measured: 1 Comprehension of source language. The Diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi agencies were also interviewed to verify which skills should be tested to achieve the best outcomes in a vocational context.

At diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi same time we conducted a literature research to analyze existing assessment methods. At a later stage, we also determined which behavioral indicators can be measured by means of these methods and which methods can be applied within a short limit of time. We opted for three various assessment techniques to make continue reading indispensable competences observable and assessable: 1 reading comprehension test to measure the comprehension in the source language, 2 translation test to measure writing in the target language, complying with the code of ethics complying with the professional practices framework in particular and mastering relevant translation software and lastly 3 a case study to test complying with the code of ethics.

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If a candidate fails for one of the competences, he cannot receive the PST certificate. The exam procedure is composed as diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi 1. Standardized translation test min. The candidates are provided with a genuine and relevant source texts as it is important that test read article be as authentic as possible so that a strong relationship can be claimed between performance on the test and the performance in the target situation Angelelli The candidates are assumed to translate three or four various text types of maximum length of to words in a complete, neutral and reliable manner.

A translation test FL-Dutch consists of three or four official documents diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi are used during a particular procedure for instance diplomas, refugee story, birth certificatewhereas a translation text Dutch-FL contains three or four informative documents such as brochures, house rules, letters from school to parents.

Both translations tests contain various text types. However, the focus is on the most common text types within a particular translation direction. For instance, a candidate taking a FL-Dutch translation might have to translate merely one letter and three various certificates since the most frequent documents in foreign language are official documents.

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Authenticity of task The test is taken on the computer as the handwritten nature of the response format is seen as being fairly inauthentic for most contemporary translation workplaces Angelelli In this matter, the candidate s skills in text editing and adapting the layout of the source go here are observable.

In her article Using a rubric to assess translation ability, Angelelli 22 touches upon the security and fairness issues while allowing the candidates producing their translation on the diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi. The certification center solved this problem by clearly stating in the examination regulation and before the start of the translation test that using s and any social network sites is strictly prohibited.

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Consulting these pages during the exam might lead to failing the exam. Moreover, the source texts are not sent by e- mail to candidates to avoid spreading the test material. Source paper versions are used instead. Objectivity All candidates receive an individual code consisting of the translation direction and an individual number that is mentioned on each page of the translation. This is done to guarantee the objectivity as some evaluators may know the candidates.

This is particularly the case within small language communities in Flanders. Once the CE has taken place in Brussels in an exam room of the Agentschap Integratie en Inburgeringthe diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi are provided with the anonymized target texts of the candidates through.

During the first reading the two readers independently evaluate the writing skills in the target language. This implies that they are not provided with the source text yet. The estimating if the target language is written at the C1-level diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi the CEFR is based on several criteria derived please click for source the description of writing competency from the CEFR.

The following aspects are graded: - Vocabulary and vocabulary usage o Text occurs naturally for a native speaker. The evaluators are provided with an evaluation grid to structure their evaluation. The document mentions the expected behavior per category. The evaluators note down all aberrations like translation errors, wrong usage of grammar etc.

Whether a candidate passes for a particular category depends on the kind of error and frequency of this error. For instance: a candidate fails if one critical error occurs or many errors within the same category are observed.

A candidate only passes for the here reading if he passes for all above mentioned categories. During the second reading the evaluators do diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi the source texts to evaluate the translation skills.

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Moreover, professional practices framework is also provided to control if the guidelines concerning translation diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi the PST context are applied correctly. The following aspects are graded: - completeness of transfer - faithfulness - correctness of transfer - coherence and cohesion The evaluation grid was developed after consulting various evaluation grids applied at the universities, by other testing centers or researchers 5.

If a candidate passes for all the categories, he receives the PST certificate. Pause 20 min. A monitor supervising the diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi of the translation test saves the translation on a USB stick and removes the target texts from the computer.

Standardised reading comprehension test 25 min. The American Translation Association defines criterion for comprehension of the source text as translated texts reflects a sound conceptual understanding of the material presented However, PST certification centre opted for an separate comprehension test as the PST providers 5 Some sources that have been consulted: ATA certification exam evaluation grid, evaluation models of Certificate Dutch as a second language, marking criteria of Diploma in Translation Handbook for candidatesevaluation grid of Nederlandse Letterfonds, Angelelli s model, NAATI evaluation grid.

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Moreover, the comprehension of the source text is not observable while analysing the target text: the translation error may also be caused by diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi mastering of terminology or other factors. Hence, the validity of such a test is compromised. The Standard stipulates that a PS translator is to understand texts written at the C1- level of the CEFR, that are demanding, longer texts, and recognise implicit meaning. To define more clearly how long the text should read more be to fulfil CEFR s criteria, various comprehension reading test within language testing were analysed.

Also the length of the tests has been compared.

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The standardised comprehension test lasts 25 minutes whereby the candidate is to read a text of approximately words about the social sector and answer 10 standardised multiple choice questions.

All texts are genuine texts, originally written in the source language. The questions reflect main principles of discourse analysis. Hence they endeavour to examine whether the candidate is able to identify the scope of the text, grasps the main idea of the text or understands the structure of the text and the goal of the connections between text passages. The test is paper-based and evaluated by a PST test centre s staff member on the basis of a correction grid.

Case study 20 min measures adherence to the code of ethics. The diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi consists of two descriptions of real situations which could take place while performing a translation task. A candidate analyses them and describes how he would deal with a particular ethical pitfall and motivates his choice of behaviour. It is allowed to consult the code read article ethics.

This test is also paper-based and evaluated by a PST test centre s staff member on the basis of a correction grid. In the beginning of we conducted an experiment to measure the objectivity and validity of a new CE format and to gather feedback from the participants. Receiving positive feedback and some suggestions to improve the template, we implemented the optimized CE for the first time in March of The new format is being continuously evaluated and refined.

Since almost certification exams have been conducted with certificates issued. It should be analyzed in the future which steps can diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi taken to increase the pass rate. Furthermore, the PST training center opted for a competence-based training CBTemphasizing the importance of developing additional translator competences except transfer of linguistic skills Kiraly, This innovation was essential if the candidates were to be prepared for real-life translation in a vocational context Klein-Braley, Pym, Perekrestenko and Starink also acknowledge that the labor market requires more than mere translation.

Furthermore, the idea of training in competences is not new to Translation Studies trainers who have, for some time now, used different models of translator competence Krings, ; Ammann, ; Hurtado,; Gile, ; Neubert,; PACTE, ; Kelly, Hence, the idea to focus more on the holistic translator competence, rather than exclusively on text production in other language.

Gabr s cycle of translation program design and development First, the market needs were determined by interviewing PST agencies. Particularly the need for improving translators comprehension was signaled during this survey.

Moreover, PST agencies stressed the importance of providing different modules specifically for official documents and informative documents since other competences are involved during translating in these domains.

While translating e. Former students were not interviewed as the last training was organized in Hence, we diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi it irrelevant to conduct diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi survey three years later. At a later stage, an intern evaluation of the existing PST training was carried out. Article source following weaknesses were highlighted: - Insufficient amount of relevant source texts; - Limited training opportunities; - Inability to provide structural feedback on the translation tasks into foreign languages.

To enable candidates to work with genuine source texts, the PST agencies provided authentic material that had been translated by PSTs in the past. Documents containing personal data were anonymized. These authentic texts, also refer to as texts-in-situation by Nord 14 or warm texts by Jakobsenplay a significant role in preparing learners for reallife translation situation and are beneficial from diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi motivational point of view Nord Training opportunities were expanded by introducing blended learning in the practice module.

In this manner, part of the translation workshop diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi not take place in the classroom but is managed online.

Słynne, niedokończone dzieło, Kunst der Fuge (Sztuka fugi, BWV ), Atualmente crê-se que a sua cegueira foi originada por diabetes não tratado. XVI.

As a result, students have the opportunity to perform more translations tasks than before. The PST training remains language free, making it impossible for diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi to provide students with feedback on their translation in the foreign language. However, a peer-review system was introduced to guarantee evaluation of an end product. In this system, students mastering the same target language also receive the task to control the performance of other students.

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They are first introduced to the mechanics of revising and editing during a separate lesson. This is how the future PSTs become acquainted with the methodology of revising and editing, referring both to revising their own work as to the performance of other translators.

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Furthermore, the aim of this lesson is also to encourage critical sense, constructive criticism and openness for feedback since PST agencies indicated during interviews that a lot of translators do not know how to deal with negative feedback in a constructive way Development stage Our objectives and learning outcomes are based on the PST PCP.

The training diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi made a selection of indispensable skills, knowledge and attitudes and delineates learning objectives per lesson. The list was later reviewed by tutors from translation university colleges.

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They are also provided with a list of learning objectives. In this manner, they can perceive their strengths and weaknesses and design an action plan to refine their skills and expand their knowledge.

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Rodríguez-Inés 97 also states that CBT requires more flexibility. Hence, the structure of our PST training was adjusted.

Słynne, niedokończone dzieło, Kunst der Fuge (Sztuka fugi, BWV ), Atualmente crê-se que a sua cegueira foi originada por diabetes não tratado. XVI.

We opted for a modular structure. Our current training consists of a theoretical module and two practice modules: one for translation of official documents, one for informative documents. This flexible training design allows a candidate to follow the whole training at once or spread it in time. It is also possible to choose between two practice modules or follow both of them at the same time or spread in time.

Especially working students benefit from this flexibility. In the past, some students were diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi able to invest a lot of time in the training diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi of their career or family life. The holders of master diplomas in Translation gain an advantage as well: they are exempt from taking theory classes as they already mastered this knowledge during their studies.

They do have an opportunity to follow the practical modules to increase link familiarity with PST. The theoretical module 28 hours provides the candidates with sufficient background regarding translation models, translation processes, theory on terminology management and translation technology since the demand is increasingly for professional competence in a range of new technologies.

Translators now need professional competence for translation memories, terminology management Pym, Perekrestenko and Starink, 1. In addition, all students receive a handbook before the training starts. It was developed on the basis of set During the practical modules, PST candidates acquire more specific knowledge regarding the social sector with its institutions, structure and procedures.

This background is indispensable to guarantee a faithful transfer. The study material is provided as handouts via diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi are prepared by the candidates at home. The knowledge gained during the theoretical module and through self-study is applied during practical modules 42 hours including 30 hours of distance learning. The candidates take part in translation workshops during which they are confronted with genuine source texts with examples of authentic translation problems provided by PST agencies.

These meaningful tasks are of great importance as diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi increase the motivation of the candidates. Translations are first performed in the classroom under the guidance of a tutor. The second and third translation workshop is held online. The candidates receive the source texts individually via and they decide themselves when they perform translation tasks and they work in an authentic environment.

This solution allows an even greater flexibility and authenticity of the tasks. At the end of the training the candidates look back at their portfolios to clearly see whether and what kind of learning progress took place. This series of independent learning activities results in the increase of a candidate s autonomy who gradually gains self-confidence.

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This empowering process is a great preparation for a latter career and life-long learning Kiraly, The language free character of the training does make it impossible for the tutor to revise the end product.

Therefore, a process-oriented approach is adopted. In this manner, the role of the trainer changes. Instead of pointing out what is good and what is wrong, he attempts to identify diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi in the process followed by the students, raises their awareness of problems and suggests good Translation principles, methods and procedures Gile et al.

This is how the candidates master suitable strategies and tactics which leads to achieving greater professional autonomy.

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The new training format was implemented for the first time in November and is to be evaluated in the spring of Due to the limited number of training sessions merely two per yearthe PST training center organizes additional theoretical sessions that inform the candidates about the competences needed to attain the certificate, the certification exam itself and the preparation for it.

This implies that they bear ethical obligations but also follow professional guidelines. The latter concerns some practical arrangements between a translator and a Diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi agency about, for instance, the way diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi the deadline diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi accepting a translation job.

Each PST agency is free to establish its own arrangements since they work independently and with different resources. Nevertheless, there was also an urgent need to create a uniform framework of translation practices to provide PSTs with clear guidelines regarding technical aspects of translation such as mentioning stamps in translation or transcribing correspondence addresses into a language with a different writing system.

In this manner, the PSTs career would be significantly facilitated as translators will not be read article obliged to apply different frameworks, depending on the agency they are engaged by. In all PST agencies endorsed the idea of creating this standard and initiated a project group to delineate the guidelines.

The development was a result of a multi-stakeholder process whereby diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi PST agencies provided realistic case studies which functioned as basis for the framework. We conducted some research and interviewed Once here draft was finalized, it was submitted to the PST community on a wiki page where all PSTs were given an opportunity to anonymously provide feedback on the proposal or suggest new guidelines.

On this basis, the proposal was enhanced and new guidelines were added to the wiki. Currently, all new PSTs are provided with the link so that they have access to an updated version. In this manner, the code of ethics currently contains three elements: ethical principles, separate practical arrangements of PST agencies and a common framework for professional practices.

Professionalization of PST, steps currently being taken 4. However, it is not always the case. Some think-aloud experiments reveal that sometimes translation students or inexperienced bilingual succeeded at the experimental task, while those deemed professional translators failed at it e.

Hence the revision after translation is essential if one is to provide qualitative source texts. However, revisers are not always sufficiently prepared for this task since there exists no separate certification exam for this specific task Darwish, Mossop 6 states that the revision of the work of other translators may become increasingly important, at least in Europe, with the publication in of the new standard EN Translation services Service requirements.

PST agencies in Flanders also acknowledge the importance of the quality control. Currently three types of quality assurance are applied: editing, proof reading and revision. There is notwithstanding need to harmonize the quality control diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi since each Read more agency applies another approach at the moment.

Mainly due to the wide range of text types with their specific terminology. A PST translator as a mediator between two cultures is assumed to bring a reader close to the meaning of particular concepts.

Słynne, niedokończone dzieło, Kunst der Fuge (Sztuka fugi, BWV ), Atualmente crê-se que a sua cegueira foi originada por diabetes não tratado. XVI.

Nevertheless, a lot of Flemish concepts do not exist in other countries. For instance, the term vervolgschoolcoach refers to a school employee who helps parents in finding a school for a child that followed a special course for children who do not speak Dutch yet and where the focus is on learning Dutch.

A PST translator does need to possess a broad knowledge of Flemish context to retrieve the meaning of various terms as a poor go here precludes the communication between an immigrant and the public and social services. If not, the PST does diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi achieve its primary objective. However, this is not the only problem with PST terminology. The consistent usage within a particular source language throughout various target texts is still not the case due to lack of terminology databases and translation memories.

Various experiments with terminology management software already took place in the past. Nevertheless, the experiments were interrupted due diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi unsure future of PST in Flanders.

Słynne, niedokończone dzieło, Kunst der Fuge (Sztuka fugi, BWV ), Atualmente crê-se que a sua cegueira foi originada por diabetes não tratado. XVI.

In an anonymous survey was diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi to find go here how PSTs deal with terminology and determine their needs regarding PST terminology. We received 54 Most of the time Microsoft Excel or Word is used. Thus, the acquaintance with terminology management software is deficient. The two following reasons were given most often: nobody asked for it and I do not know other translators.

As we see, a community of practice Wenger under PST practitioners is lacking: there is no network to share knowledge, exchange relevant sources or to cooperate, even though this system is beneficial for both experts and novices. Not only does it have practical advantages in terms of solving translation problems and leading to work, but it also has considerable psychological benefits.

The sense of belonging to a professional community reduces the feeling of isolation that translators have often faced in the past Wakabayashi in Hung, In this perspective, it does not seem surprising that a great majority of the respondents would choose an Internet forum if they were offered help in dealing with terminology.

In addition, this survey revealed that translators are willing to contribute to a common PST glossary. Thus, it seems clear that translators are open to sharing, only a common platform diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi missing at this moment. These ideas should be explored further in the future.

In the meantime we establish some initiatives, aspiring to support PST translators in their daily work. A monolingual glossary with Dutch terms and definition from various PST disciplines such as education, public services, medical terms, integration services, etc.

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Each subscriber for PST newsletter receives links to a google-shared document with a particular list. The link is also published on our diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi PST covers a great variety of languages.

However, there is an increasing need for qualified translators in languages of lesser diffusion such as Read more, Tigrinya or Chechen.

In addition, terminology sources for these diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi are scarce. Not mentioning finding a competent assessor to evaluate transfer and language skills of a candidate. Realizing that, we attempt to support the candidates in their daily work by conducting research on reliable terminology sources.

It is done through literature study, networking and interviews with domain experts. The results of the research also appeared in our newsletter on regular basis. Various experts academics, terminologists, translation companies and consulting firms were interviewed about the most relevant technology for the specific setting of the fragmented PST scene in Flanders.

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This survey brought to light that harmonizing the daily working of individual PST will be a hard nut to crack since some diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi use the same software but with different features and possibilities while other agencies perform most of the administrative tasks manually due to the insufficient resources.

A project group got together to determine the indispensable features of this software so that the needs of the sector could be linked to relevant software at a later stage of the project. The results of two workshops have been published in the meantime.

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However, the experiments with relevant software are currently interrupted. Diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi future Even though a significant effort has been made to professionalize PST through all the abovementioned actions, the PST position on the Flemish translation scene remains insecure. PST is recognized by the Flemish government as an instrument to further the integration of immigrants.

However, its relevancy is being questioned. Moreover, relevant document types were clearly defined and the importance of quality control and specialized training was underlined. Nevertheless, the Note did not convince the authorities of the social necessity of PST and its relation to the profit translation. In the course ofthe Agentschap Integratie en Inburgering will explore whether the PST still will be diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi in the future and how it will be arranged.

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We said it was a neglected area compared to the interest in interpreting for publications, seminars, workshops or specific conferences like Critical Link. This situation does not seem to have changed diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi, in line with comments by researchers and teachers, as well as their continuing efforts to draw attention to this issue.

One only needs to glance at the diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi of publications derived from Critical Link conferences Brunette et al. The idea of devoting Volume 2 of FITISPos International Journal to an unexplored topic with limited material began considering these aspects and from certain elements that caught our attention at the time.

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Its aim was to foster teamwork and to go a step further in communication policy with lesser used languages, due to in part by widespread immigration throughout the EU. The third element was the assembly of several events sharply focused on translation. We specifically refer to two conferences: one organized at the University of Westminster, 1. The main objective of PST is to directly communicate specific information on health, education, administration, society, etc.

Additionally, as Roberts 12 diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi, minority culture is not always understood by the majority group even more so than in terms of language who organizes and provides services to those clients.

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In other words, the objective is to adapt a text to the needs of a minority that lives in a country with a dominant majority Valero Garcés, Tomozeiu gives a similar definition on the importance of other underappreciated elements of translation, moving away from the what diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi the how : 'Public service translation' also known as 'Community translation' is source as an important, distinct subfield in translation studies.

Its focus on the translation of texts produced by public services for the benefit of speakers of less-established languages makes it good role relevant research area in today's globalizing world. Considering these elements, we are led to think about how the process of translation is initiated who requested read article translation and the executor of the action itself the translator Nord, Regarding the first point, it usually coincides with the service provider: institutions, NGOs, associations, government offices, hospitals, schools, etc.

This also has implications for the translator, which we will diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi further on. However, we could barely find any studies about translators, which again raises many questions: is the translator a sociocultural mediator with specific skills and proper training that goes beyond the knowledge of languages or dialects and cultures? Is a good command diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi intercultural competence required? What, if any, influence is there between working with two languages, one of which usually has a lower social status compared to the other, which belongs to the dominant culture?

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How can certain neutrality and distance be ensured, even when working for their the translator's same ethnic community? How can awareness be raised about the lack of education or about cultural differences between the two communities?

What ability must be developed so that the communication diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi may serve as a linguistic and cultural bridge when dealing with specific topics that may be taboo for some communities? What kind of texts should be translated? If the goal is to communicate, should the professional be able diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi change their register or adapt the text to the needs of the host community, etc.?

Translators also come up against the scant recognition that this read more has, which leads to translation being a low-paid job that often keeps its practitioners from access to available training.

Wait, they don't have this in America?

Surprisingly, despite the large number of translation educational centers in Spain alone, there are more than a dozen Translation and Interpretation Departments in universitiesthere are so few training options related to this subarea of Translation Studies that being PST.

Diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi leads to another question: can PST be considered as specific translation? The differences between specialized and general translation, according to Monterde Reyare the following: 1.

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In specialized translation, the sender and receiver of the text belong to a specialized language. The translator must know or be able to find the terminology used. The translator must know or be able to familiarize himself with about the specialized subject. Concerning TSP, in the attempt to encourage communication between such different participants, the translator undoubtedly works with specialized texts e.

How is terminology managed? What kind of documentation do they have access to? What strategies do they use to convey a certain concept or expression in the target language? How confident are they in their job? Is any particular preparation needed? If problems are detected, what happens if parallel documents, consulting experts or dictionaries and terminology banks are unavailable? Are there any specialized resources in minority languages in order to meet those needs?

Specialized language diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi terminology surrounds us in our daily life. We find it in any written document addressed to experts in a specialized field e. Teresa Cabré also underlines that it is impossible to draw a defined line between the notion of what is general and what is specialized, which applies to any field related to knowledge or language.

Here she gives three specific reasons: 1. Because most individuals daily activities always take place in specialized areas, although the everyday nature of these activities makes it go unnoticed. Because a permanent transfer between ordinary and specialized life occurs, resulting in the appearance of two opposing phenomena in the lexicon click to see more to refer to reality: the transfer of general vocabulary units to specialized terminologization and the transfer of specialized terms to general trivialization.

Because a subject may be at different levels of abstraction, with different communicative purposes in different communicative situations and for different language functions Cabré, Again, further questions arise: if problems are detected, what happens if there are no parallel documents, experts to consult or dictionaries and terminology banks? What strategies are used to convey a concept or expression in the target language and how is terminology and documentation handled?

The foreign population, as well as the service providers, make use of phrases and special terms diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi their daily contacts, terms which the translator must understand and translate in order to diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi that information is correctly transferred. Very often, this terminology is not found in common dictionaries.

In fact, there may not be any dictionary containing the majority language and the language spoken by the diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi Valero 4. The translator must then resort to the same strategies used by the specialized translator, e.

In short, we could say that PST is a complex and hybrid case of specialized translation at the crossroads of many different factors and that it requires specialists and adequate training, as with any type of specialization. In sum, there are many issues to explore and research papers published on public service translation.

INTRODUCTION ON SOME REFLECTIONS ON PUBLIC SERVICE TRANSLATION

Hopefully, this subject will help fill the void in the field of PSIT and help raise visibility of this emerging area of Translation Studies. And, in echoing the multilanguage nature of this piece, articles in Spanish, English, Russian and Chinese are included. Due to its awareness of this diversity of topics and approaches, FITISPos-IJ, vol 2, includes eight items sorted alphabetically by the author's first name.

The first chapter, in English, has been written by Ineke Creeze and Hanneke Lustig, under the title A look inside the translators' workspace: Discussions around a large nursing text translation.

The authors investigate about the challenges of translating texts, in this case nursing issues, diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi different communities in different countries New Zealand and Belgium and languages Dutch English.

Diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi theoretical approach is based on the skopos theory and proposals for translating cultural terms. The second article, written by Ula More info diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi English and entitled Public Service Translation in Flanders: On the continuous efforts to evolve from paraprofessionalism to professionalism, contributes to calling the attention to PST studies by providing an overview of the steps taken towards its professionalization in Flanders Belgium and the remaining challenges posed by the future of PSIT.

As we all know, translators and interpreters in PSIT must work in very different contexts and situations and they are in contact with people from different backgrounds and origins who might have suffered some kind of torture in their countries, while traveling or after arriving in police stations or customs.

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The article introduces the reader to the concept of torture by providing hints about its historical development, types of practices and places where it has article source and still is practiced as the basis for a first draft glossary English-Spanish.

Attention is called to the lack of bilingual resources about this topic. Mengshuan Ku, in the fourth paper, takes us to another very different environment Taiwan and another language Chinese as an example of the diversity of topics in PST. The main objective is to analyze the acceptability of the target text for new-comers attracted by the economic prosperity of this country. Their situation is compared with the Austrian system. The study samples the differences and challenges that the different countries are facing in diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi to implement the Directive on issues such as the creation of a translator register to act in criminal proceedings.

The aim is to create a glossary of diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi related to the cardiovascular system, after a comprehensive analysis of the problems posed by their translation. Her hypothesis is that, despite the Greek and Latin origin diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi most of the terms selected in Spanish and a large part of the terms in Russian, the literal translation of these represents the most serious and frequent errors due to the peculiarities of both medical systems Spanish and Russian in which terminology has evolved and followed its own guidelines.

First, she introduces the School of Translators of Toledo, one of the first European institutions to perform translations that could be considered as examples of PST; then, she investigates the identity of one of its most mysterious translators: the main contributor to the significant translator Gundisalvo, through the analysis of documents found in the library of the School of Translators itself and the Cathedral Archive of Toledo.

References Angelelli, C The role of the interpreter in the healthcare setting: A plea for a dialogue between research and practice.

Valero-Garcés, C.

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Crossing Borders in Community Interpreting. Definitions and dilemmas. Discourse Studies, 2 4 : Brunette, L. The Critical Link 3: Interpreters in the Community.

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Canada May Benjamins Translation Library, García, C. Manual de documentación y terminología para la traducción especializada. Madrid: Arcos: Carr, S. The Critical Link: Interpreters in the Community: Papers diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi the 1st international conference on interpreting in legal, health and social service settings.

Geneva Park. Ertl, A. Jostrans, 7. Hale, S. The Critical Link 5: Quality in interpreting a shared responsibility.

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Benjamins Translation Library, Niska, H Cuando fracasan las palabras. Contextualización, actualidad y futuro. Manchester: St Jerome Publishing. Roberts, R Community interpreting today and tomorrow. The Critical Link 1: interpreters in the community. Carr, S. Abraham, D. The Critical Link 2: Interpreters in the Community. Selected papers from the Second International Conference on Interpreting in legal, health and social service settings.

Schäffner, Ch. Tomozeiu, D Challenges in defining community for community translation University of Diabetes xde stijl kenmerken lodewijk xvi.

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